South Dakota is a U.S. state in the United States ' Midwestern region. It is named after the Native American tribes of Lakota and Dakota Sioux, who make up a large portion of the population and have controlled the region historically. South Dakota is by area the seventeenth largest, but by population the fifth smallest, and the fifth least densely populated of the fifty. As the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, on November 2, 1889, at the same time originally North Dakota, South Dakota became a state. Pierre is the state capital and the largest city in South Dakota is Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200.
Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the population of the state, and a variety of crops are used to grow fertile soil in the area. Ranching is the primary agricultural operation in the west of the Missouri River and the economy is more dependent on spending on tourism and defense. Most of the reservations of Native American are in the West River. The Black Hills is situated in the southwest part of the state, a region of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux. There's a major tourist destination, Mount Rushmore. There is a temperate continental climate in South Dakota, with four distinct seasons and precipitation varying from mild east to semi-arid west. The ecosystem of the state contains typical species of a North American grassland biome.
South Dakota has several National Park Service sites managed. In South Dakota, two national parks are created, both in the southwestern part of the state. Wind Cave National Park, established in the Black Hills in 1903, has an extensive network of caves as well as a large herd of bison. The National Park of Badlands was created in 1978. The park is surrounded by semi-arid grasslands with an eroded, brightly colored landscape. In 1925, Mount Rushmore National Memorial was founded in the Black Hills. Four U.S. sculpture Sculptor Gutzon Borglum carved the presidents into the mountainside.
Many locations maintained by the National Park Service include the Jewel Cave National Monument near Custer, the National Historic Trail of Lewis and Clark, the Minuteman Missile National Historic Site with a decommissioned nuclear missile silo and a separate missile control area several miles away, and the Missouri National Recreational River. The Crazy Horse Memorial is a massive, private-funded sculpture on the side of the mountains near Mt. Rushmore. Another private destination in the Black Hills is the Mammoth Site near Hot Springs. A paleontological work dig, the site has one of the largest mammoth remains in the world.
Fishing and hunting in South Dakota is a common outdoor activity. Fishing contributes more than $224 million to the economy of South Dakota, and hunting contributes more than $303 million. More than 275,000 hunting licenses and 175,000 fishing licenses were issued in the state in 2007; South Dakotans bought about half of the hunting licenses and more than two-thirds of the fishing licenses. Popular game species include faisans, white-tailed deer, mule deer, and turkeys, as well as waterfowl such as Canadian geese, snow geese, and mallards. Anglers ' goals include walleye in the eastern glacial lakes and dams of the Missouri River, Lake Oahe Chinook salmon, and Black Hill trout.
Other sports are also popular in the state, such as cycling and running. The state opened the George S. Mickelson Trail in the Black Hills in 1991, a 109-mile (175 km) trail. The trail is also the location of a portion of the annual Mount Rushmore marathon, in addition to being used by cyclists; the entire course of the marathon is more than 4,000 feet (1,200 m) long. Other state activities include the 478-mile (769 km) Tour de Kota, a six-day cycling event spanning much of eastern and central South Dakota, and the annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, which draws hundreds of thousands of participants from across the United States.Read: South Dakota Wikipedia Page