Pennsylvania, formally Pennsylvania's Commonwealth, is a state situated in the United States ' Northeastern, Great Lakes, and Mid-Atlantic areas. This runs through the middle of the Appalachian Mountains. Bordering the Commonwealth is Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.
Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest state by population, and according to the latest official U.S. census, the 5th most populous state. Counting of the census in 2010. It is the densely populated ninth of the 50 states. Philadelphia (1,580,863) and Pittsburgh (302,407) are the two most populated cities in Pennsylvania. Harrisburg is the state capital and its 10th largest city. There are 140 miles (225 km) between Lake Erie and the Delaware River in Pennsylvania.
The state is one of the United States ' 13 original founding states; it was founded in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the brother of the namesake of the state. Part of Pennsylvania (along the Delaware River) had historically been known as the New Sweden Colony, along with the present State of Delaware. On December 12, 1787, it was the second state to ratify the Constitution of the United States. Independence Hall is located in Philadelphia's largest state city, where the U.S. Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution are written. The Gettysburg Battle was fought in the state's southern central region during the American Civil War. During the bitter winter of 1777–78, Valley Forge near Philadelphia was the headquarters of General Washington.
The varied topography of Pennsylvania also creates a variety of temperatures, although the entire state experiences cold winters and rainy summers. Straddling two major regions, most of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), with the exception of the southeastern corner. There is a humid subtropical climate in the southern part of the state. Philadelphia, the largest city, has some characteristics of the subtropical humid climate (Köppen Cfa) which encompasses much of Delaware and Maryland to the south.
Generally speaking, summers are hot and humid. Moving towards the state's mountainous interior, the winter climate is getting colder, the number of cloudy days is rising, and the amount of snowfall is higher. Western parts of the state, especially near Lake Erie, can receive more than 100 inches (250 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plenty of rainfall throughout the year. Throughout spring to summer, the state may be prone to severe weather. Tornadoes occur in the state annually, sometimes in large numbers, including 30 tornadoes reported in 2011; generally speaking, such tornadoes do not cause significant damage.
As of 2018, Pennsylvania had an estimated 12,823,989 people, an increase of 18,452 compared to the previous year and an increase of 121,610 since 2010. Net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, with an increase of 127,007 resulting in immigration from other countries. The Commonwealth's net migration was 98,289. Native Pennsylvanians migration resulted in 100,000 people declining. 5.8 percent of the population were foreign-born between 2008 and 2012.
Pennsylvania is host to the Philadelphia Zoo, the country's first zoo. The Erie Zoo and the Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium are other long-accredited AZA zoos. Other notable zoos include the Lehigh Valley Zoo and ZOOAMERICA. The Commonwealth includes some of the country's best galleries, including the Pittsburgh Carnegie Galleries, the Philadelphia Art Museum, and many more. The Houdini Museum in Scranton, the world's only building dedicated to the legendary magician, is a unique museum. Pennsylvania is also host to Pittsburgh's National Aviary.
Pennsylvania has almost one million licensed hunters. The common game species are whitetail deer, black bear, cottontail rabbits, squirrels, turkey, and grouse. Pennsylvania, along with Texas and Alabama, is considered one of the best wild turkey hunting states in the Union. Sport hunting in Pennsylvania is a major boost to the economy of the State. A report from the Pennsylvania General Assembly's Center for Rural Pennsylvania (Legislative Agency) estimated that hunting, fishing and furtaking created a total of $9.6 billion across the state.
The Boone and Crockett Club shows five of the state's ten largest black bear (skull size) entries. The state also has a tied record in the Boone & Crockett books at 733 lb (332 kg) for the highest hunter shot black bear and a 23 3/16 skull tied with a bear shot in California in 1993. In 1975, the largest bear ever found dead was in Utah, and in 1987 a poacher killed the second largest bear in the region. At 183, Pennsylvania has the second-highest number of registered black bears from Boone & Crockett, second only to 299 from Wisconsin.Read: Pennsylvania Wikipedia Page