New York is a northeastern United States territory. New York was one of the United States ' first thirteen colonies. It is the fourth most populous state with an estimated 19.54 million in 2018. It is sometimes referred to as New York State (NYS) to differentiate the state from its city with the same name.
New York City, the most populous city of the state, makes up over 40% of the population of the state. Two-thirds of the population of the state reside in the metropolitan area of New York, and almost 40% live on Long Island. Both the government and the city are named for the Duke of York in the 17th century, England's future King James II. New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the leading gateway to legal immigration to the United States, with an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017. The metropolitan area of New York is one of the world's most populous. New York City is a global city, home to the headquarters of the United Nations, and has been described as the world's cultural, financial and media hub and the most economically powerful city in the world. Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse are the next four most populous cities in the state, while Albany is the state capital.
New York has a varied geography, the 27th largest state in the U.S. land area. The state is bordered to the south by New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and to the east by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont. The state has a sea border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the north of Quebec's Canadian provinces and northwest of Ontario. The southern part of the state is in the coastal plain of the Atlantic which covers Long Island and several smaller neighboring islands, as well as the lower Hudson River Valley and New York City. The large Upstate New York region includes multiple ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains and the Adirondack Mountains in the state's northeastern lobe. These more mountainous areas are bisected by two major river valleys–the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley. Western New York is considered part of the area of the Great Lakes and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Niagara Falls. The Finger Lakes, a popular holiday destination and tourist destination, dominates the central part of the state.
Many New York landmarks are well known, including four of the top ten tourist attractions in the world in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, and Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of U.S. freedom, democracy, and opportunity. New York emerged in the 21st century as a regional hub for innovation and entrepreneurship, social inclusion, and protection of the environment. New York's higher education network comprises over 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, Rochester University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and Rockefeller University, among the top 40 in the nation and the world.
New York has one of the country's largest and one of the country's oldest transport infrastructures. Engineering challenges raised by the state's diverse geography and New York City's peculiar infrastructural issues caused by urban crowding had to be permanently resolved. The expansion of the state's population followed the path of the early rivers, first the Hudson River and Mohawk River, and then the Erie Canal. Railroads were established along the river valleys in the 19th century, followed in the 20th century by the New York State Thruway.Read: New York Wikipedia Page